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Jammu & Kashmir

Geographical Area: 2, 22,236 square kilometers.
Capital: Srinagar is the state's summer capital and Jammu is its winter capital.
Population: 1, 00, 69,917
Language: Urdu, Kashmiri, Dogri, Pahari, Gujri, Dardi and Ladakhi.
The official language is Urdu.
Introduction to Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost state of the Indian union consists of three divisions -Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. It has two capitals- Jammu, the winter capital and Srinagar, the summer capital. The state is almost mountainous with stretches of valleys and some mountain lakes. The state of Jammu & Kashmir is rightly called the Paradise for the tourists. The state of Jammu and Kashmir is situated in the topmost part of the country and if Mother India is a 'Queen' then Jammu & Kashmir surely looks like the 'Crown' on her head. From sun-kissed mountains, lush green valleys, beautiful gardens, to blue lakes, the state of Jammu & Kashmir has it all.

Jammu and Kashmir has been famous for its natural beauty since time immemorial and has been aptly described as "heaven on earth". The state has some of the best tourist spots in the entire country. Tourists from not only India but also the world over come to enjoy the scenic beauty of the state. The tourism industry has greatly benefited the state economy. Some of the major tourist attractions in the state are Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Leh, Patnitop, and Ladakh. The city of Jammu is popularly known as the City of temples. Srinagar is famous for its lakes and houseboats while Kashmir, known for its scenic natural beauty and rich cuisine is quite popular among tourists. The Dal Lake houseboats are one of the major attractions of Kashmir. Another major tourist attraction is the Mughal Gardens of Srinagar. While on a visit to Kashmir one should also not miss some of the various adventures.

Prospects available, like trekking, rafting and skiing. Kashmir also has some of the best handicrafts in the entire country. Srinagar is known for its traditional crafts.

Some of the major pilgrimage centers of the nation are located in the state, the two most important being the Amarnath Caves and the Vaishnodevi Shrine. Jammu and Kashmir has some of the best hotels to cater to its ever-growing tourism industry. There are hotels of various ranges. Even the Dal Lake houseboats are of all categories, like deluxe and economy. Cattle rearing and Farming are the major contributors to the economy of Jammu and Kashmir. Real Estate and Mortgage also constitute a considerable part of the service sector.

History of Kashmir

Kashmir is mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. In 250 BC, Ashoka, the great Mauryan king, established the city of Pandrethan and built many viharas and chaityas. This says much about the strategic importance that this region held even in that time. Some sources claim that Buddha also visited this region, though no proof is available to validate this theory. Kanishka, the great Kushana king, called the Third Buddhist Council at Harwan, near Srinagar, in the first century AD. This Council saw the division of Buddhism in two distinct streams called Hinayana and Mahayana. Kalhana, the first Indian history writer, gave a vivid account of the history of Kashmir before the 10th century AD. Local kingdoms ruled extensively in this region until the 12th century AD when Muslims invaded the region. The greatest Muslim king of early medieval age in Kashmir was Zain-ul-Abidin, who ascended the throne in AD 1420 and ruled up to 1470. His long rule contributed extensively to the spread of art, culture, music, and every other sphere in the life of Kashmir people. He also created a strong army and annexed many regions nearby Kashmir. These were the time of golden rule in Kashmir when peace and harmony prevailed. After the death of King Zain-ul-Abidin, a period of destruction came calling to Kashmir and many raiders from outside looted the state and made the people and local rulers their captive.

In 1587, Akbar annexed Kashmir into his vast empire. Jahangir, son of Akbar and next Mughal ruler, visited Kashmir 13 times and created two beautiful gardens on the bank of Dal Lake, namely, the Shalimar Bagh and Nishat Bagh. After two centuries of peace and development, Kashmir came into the hands of the Pathans in 1752, when the Afghan ruler Abdul Shah Abdali attacked this region on the request of local noblemen. In 1819, the Sikhs under Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed this region, but their empire remained in place only for 27 years. From 1846 to 1957, the Dogras ruled over this region when British defeated Ranjit Singh and handed over the administration of this region to Maharaja Gulab Singh.

People Of Kashmir

Jammu province is inhabited by diverse castes and sectors. Muslims make up 95% of the people in the Kashmir area, 48% in Ladakh, and almost 40% in Jammu. The froup of people called Dogras inhabitate the hilly tract bounding the mountains of the southern Kashmir valley extending to the plains of the Punjab. They speak the Dogri language that is a mixture of Sanskrit, Punjabi and Persian.

The group of people called Brahmins of the Jammu province are mainly engaged in agriculture. A minority among them comprise the priest class. Other people like Chilblains and the Sudans are the chief sectors among the Muslim Rajputs.

Khatris and Mahajans are characterized by the occupation like trade and commerce. Harijans constitute another large segment of population who are agriculturists and pursue semi-skilled professions, including those of cobblers and scavengers.

The Pahari are yet another set of inhabitants of the hilly tracts of the 'middle mountains?. They rear sheep and cultivate the sparse available tracts of land on hilly, sloppy terraces for barley, wheat and maize.

Culture Of Kashmir

The traditional Kashmiri dance is the rouf that is a dance with slow movements and haunting music that reflect the slow pace of life in the Valley.

Economy Of Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir is predominantly a mono-cropped and rainfed economy with about 40 percent of the area in Jammu division and 60 percent in Kashmir division having assured means of irrigation. In the Kashmir region wheat, oil seeds and fodder cultivation is being introduced as a second crop and in Jammu, farmers are raising paddy as an additional crop.

Agriculture is one of the key factors and the mainstay of the state's economy. The productivity level of paddy at about 40 quintals per hectare in Kashmir valley is the highest in the country. Rice, maize, and wheat are the major crops.

Still another innovation is the introduction of mushrooms. Of the produce, 90 percent is canned and exported from the state, under the guidance and supervision of the agriculture department.

Climate Of Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir enjoys an enchanting climate for the major part of the year. There are four distinct seasons - spring, summer,autumn, and winter. Till the end of May, the climate of Kashmir is comparable with that of Switzerland.

In spring, Jammu and Kashmir the valley wears a blanket of emerald green grass and is decked with flowers of various hues and fresh leaves. Summer sees the sleepy blue mountains with snow-capped peaks, clear streams, cool bubbling springs, noisy torrents, beautiful lakes, shady Chinar groves, drooping willows, and pine forests . In autumn, the trees and forests turn into bronze and copper colours, and the foliage becomes a riot of golden yellow and green. In winter, the giant size trees wear a bare look when the landscape dons a mantle of snow.

Flora & Fauna Of Kashmir

The state is rich in flora and fauna. Kashmir abounds in rich flora. The most magnificent of the Kashmir trees is the Chinar found throughout the valley. Mountain ranges in the Valley have dense deodar, pine and fir. Walnut, willow, almond and cider also add to the rich flora of Kashmir. The dense forests of Kashmir are a delight to the sport-lovers and adventures for whom there are Ibex, Snow Leopard, Musk deer, wolf, Markhor, Red bear, Black bear and Leopard. The winged game include ducks, goose, partridge, chakor, pheasant, wagtails, herons, water pigeons, warblers, and doves.

In otherwise arid desert of Ladakh some 240 species of local and migratory birds have been identified including black-necked crane. The Ladakh fauna includes yak, Himalayan Ibex, Tibetan antelope, snow leopard, wild ass, red bear and gazelle.

Location, Area and Extent Of Kashmir

The territories of Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh and Gilgit form the State of Jammu and Kashmir. The state of Jammu and Kashmir, which had earlier been under Hindu rulers and Muslim sultans, became part of the Mughal Empire under Akbar from 1586. After a period of Afgan rule from l756, it was annexed to the Sikh Kingdom of Punjab in 1819. In 1820 Maharaja Ranjit Singh made over the territory of Jammu to Gulab Singh. In 1846 Kashmir was also made over to Gulab Singh under the Treaty of Amritsar. Ladakh was annexed by Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1830. Thus this northernmost state was founded by Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1846 and was the biggest princely state in India before the partition of the country in August 1947. At that time the total area of the state was 2,22,236 sq. km. Pakistan invaded the State in October 1947. Indian forces pushed Pakistan back but in 1949 when a cease fire line was drawn about one third of the area i.e. 78932 sq. km. i.e. the whole of Gilgit, Mirpur, Kotli and a part of Poonch came into the possession of Pakistan, leaving behind only 143,30 sq. km. on the Indian side. Jammu, Udhampur, Kathua and Anantnag districts remained unaffected. Again in 1962 China occupied about 64000 sq.kms. in Ladakh known as Aksai Chin. Pakistan again made an unlawful possession over Chhamb, Deva, Chakla and Manawar gaining an area of3999 sq. kms. Thus total area left on the Indian side is about 12850 sq. kms. There are many low lying valleys in the state like Tawi Valley, Chenab Valley, Poonch Valley, Sind Valley and Liddar Valley, but the main Valley is the valley of Kashmir, which is 100 kms. wide and 15520.3 sq. kms. in area. Through this velley flows the river Jhelum with its tributaries. The height of the valley above sea level is about 1700 metres. On the map of India, the State of Jammu and Kashmir looks like a crown. The state is 640 kms. in length from north to south and 480 kms. form east to west. To its north lie Chinese and Russian Turkistan. On its east is Chinese Tibet. On the South and South-West lie the states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. On the west is the North West Frontier Provinces ofPakistan, China and Russia. Afghanistan and Pakistan now have come close to the boundaries of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, The nearness to the boundaries of foreign countries has made the position of the State most important from military point of view. The entire State lies between 32.17" and 36.58" North altitude and East to West, the State lies between 73.26" and 80.30" longitude. The standared time is 5.30 hours ahead of Greenwitch time as in the rest of India and has a difference of half an hour with the local time. In lalitude, the State of Jammu and Kashmir corresponds with South Carolina (North America), Fez (Morracco), Damascus, Baghdad and Peshawar (Pakistan).


The state is well connected with rest of the country by air, rail and road .

By Air

Nearest Jammu airport is 8Kms from the city centre. Flights from Delhi and Amritsar link to all the three main regions of the state - the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh and the Jammu region.

By Road

National Highway 1A connects Jammu from Punjab and also to the rest of the state, including the capital Srinagar.





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Kashmir has treasure(s) of spiritual personalities and physical artifacts, yet to be explored or unfolded..

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Kashmir has treasure(s) of spiritual personalities and physical artifacts, yet to be explored or unfolded..
Kashmir has treasure(s) of spiritual personalities and physical artifacts, yet to be explored or unfolded..
Kashmir has treasure(s) of spiritual personalities and physical artifacts, yet to be explored or unfolded..
Kashmir has treasure(s) of spiritual personalities and physical artifacts, yet to be explored or unfolded..
Kashmir has treasure(s) of spiritual personalities and physical artifacts, yet to be explored or unfolded..
Kashmir has treasure(s) of spiritual personalities and physical artifacts, yet to be explored or unfolded..

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